Geography is a subject where majority of students face problem, although it is a subject of day to day life and must be comparatively easier to any other subject. Therefore, from the day one of Class 12 session, you need to take it very seriously without missing any class.
In the book Fundamentals of Human Geography, the chapters are divided into four units. Unit third is of 20 marks, you should devote good time to it. Take care about the division of activities. It is sometimes hard to define whether a given activity is a part of the secondary or tertiary sector. For example, public utilities are often considered a part of the tertiary sector as they provide services to people, while creating the utility's infrastructure is often considered a part of the secondary sector, even though the same business may be involved in both aspects of the operation. In unit second, students should go through in detail about the topics like density of population, components of population, migration, age–sex pyramids and factors influencing the distribution of population in a particular area. In unit first, go through the concepts of determinism, possiblism and stop and go determinism and follow geographers with their views about geography. Unit fourth is about human settlement, e.g. urban and rural. Be alert about the types and patterns of settlements with examples.
The book – India People and Economy has five units. Unit third has highest marks allotment, is the easiest and scouring of all units. Land use patterns, multipurpose projects, water conservation and rainwater harvesting are the important topics of this unit. Agricultural crops should be studied under the heading – temperature, soil, rainfall and their state. Questions may be about the factors of growth of a particular crop like sugarcane in a specific state. Green revolution and its factors and problems of Indian agriculture and integrated study of iron and steel industry, cotton textile industry and sugar industry are also equally important. In unit fourth, case study, sustainable development, inland water ways and national highways development projects should be studied in detail. In unit one and two, regional variation of population growth, composition of working population, consequences of migration and indicators of human development need more attention. In unit fifth, water pollution with the reference of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers and problems of slums in Mumbai etc. are important.
For map work, go through the map of primary activities, trans-continental railways and roadways in human geography and important centres of manufacturing industries and centres of minerals like iron ore, software technology parks and industrial regions from the book - India People and Economy. A question may be asked on the study of a diagram or table. So, practice well for analysis of data and table.
Keep these things in mind and you will certainly score well in geography. Don't just rely on others’ notes. If you seriously need a good score, then help yourself. Study the NCERT text books of geography and believe in the concept - to study a book hundred times is better to study hundred books one time. Try to co-relate chapter and topics with other topics and events.
Also, try to leave your mugging up attitude as this will degrade the duration of learning. If you understand each and every part of the chapter stepwise, then it will be a lot easier to remember and to write it on your own. Making your own notes is a good practice. In geography, questions like difference between, important features of, etc. are common, so you must habituate yourself of writing answers in points. Breaking up and writing in points help to fetch more marks because each point stands for a mark.
Answer of easy and average questions should be written to the point, but of difficult questions should be explained with diagram, sketch, map etc.
Last but not the least, don’t forget about time management and words limit prescribed in the paper.