Terrace farming consists of building a series of step like benches. These benches are supported by either sod or stone walls. Each level slows the flow of water runoff, slowing the erosion process. They also bring into tillage areas that formerly could not be farmed. The cities of the Inca civilization were located high in the Andes Mountains where conventional farming was not feasible. They had to develop a way to grow enough crops to sustain a large population. In the harsh climate of the Andes, agriculture is a difficult activity, but can be very rewarding. Some of the obstacles faced by the people are cold temperatures at night, tropical temperatures during the day, and a lack of dependable rainfall. Temperature fluctuations at these elevations throughout the day makes it seem as though their is a change in seasons. These temperature differences can be as great as 55 to 70 degrees. Both terrace farming and irrigation was used to solve these problems, and both were organized by the state. Workers on these projects were citizens that had to provide labor at different times in their life. The worker system was always revolving around so all shared in the work. Raised benches that were irrigated created a small microclimate. Built of rectangularly cut stones. In these microclimates different types of potatoes could grow. Potatoes that were not quite as resilient could flourish here. Otherwise a more hardier tuber had to be raised, these types were not as sought after and were quite bitter
In hilly areas the growing of crops on level steps or terraces meant for farming
terrace farming is a farming system practised by cutting slopes in hilly areas and it helps in preventing soil erosion.it is a very efficient method.
building step like stuctures on valley sides,which reduces runoff and hence prevent erosion is called terrace farming
In hilly areas the growing of crops on levels or terraces meant for farming
In agriculture, a terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area, designed as a method of soil conservation to slow or prevent the rapid surface runoff of irrigation water. Often such land is formed into multiple terraces, giving a stepped appearance. The human landscapes of rice cultivation in terraces that follow the natural contours of the escarpments like contour plowing is a classic feature of the island of Bali and the Banaue Rice Terraces in Benguet, Philippines. In Peru, the Inca made use of otherwise unusable slopes by drystone walling to create terraces. This form of land use is prevalent in many countries, and is used for crops requiring a lot of water, such as rice. Terraces are also easier for both mechanical and manual sowing and harvesting than a steep slope would be.
Natural terracing, the result of small-scale erosion, is formed where cattle are grazed for long periods on steep sloping pasture. Sometimes, as a Glastonbury Tor, the result is regular enough to give an impression of archaeological artifacts.
From its origins in agriculture the practice of formally terracing a sloping site evolved in gardening. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon could have been built on an artificial mountain with stepped terraces like those on a ziggurat. At the seaside Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, the villa gardens of Julius Caesar's father-in-law fell away giving pleasant and varied views of the Bay of Naples.
Terraces were also methods of soil conservation farming for the Inca. They used a system of canals and aqueducts, and made the water flow through dry land and helped them be fertile lands.
The Incas constructed the terraces on the slopes of the Andes mountains. They cut step-like ledges into the mountainside, so they could be used as field, where they planted crops. Using terraces also stopped the rain from washing away the soil. This technique was so successful, it is still used in the Andes Mountains.
In old English, a terrace was also called a lynch and there is a fine example of a Lynch Mill in Lyme Regis, for which the water arrives via a river ducted along a terrace. This set-up was used in steeply hilly areas in the UK.