English-B

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or a noun phrase. Pronouns are often used to refer to a noun that has already been mentioned. Kinds of Pronouns Pronouns can be classified as follows: • Personal • Reciprocal • Indefinite • Reflexive • Demonstrative • Interrogative • Emphatic • Distributive • Relative Relative pronouns A relative pronoun is a pronoun such as which, who, or that, used to begin a relative clause. Relative pronouns can be used as a subject of a restrictive clause, object in a restrictive clause, possessive in a restrictive clause, subject of a non-restrictive clause and an object in a non-restrictive clause. Relative pronouns: who We use who in relative clauses to refer to people, and sometimes to pet animals. We use it to introduce defining and non-defining relative clauses. • Who can act as the subject or the object of the relative clause • We can use who as the complement of a preposition • We often use who with collective human nouns Relative pronouns: whom We use whom in formal styles or in writing to refer to people when the person is the object of the verb. • We can use whom as the complement of a preposition • We usually use whose as a relative pronoun to indicate possession by people and animals. In more formal styles we can also use it for things. • We can use whose + noun as the complement of a preposition Relative pronouns: which We use which in relative clauses to refer to animals and to things. We use it to introduce defining and non-defining relative clauses. We always use which to introduce relative clauses when they refer to a whole sentence or clause • Which can act as the subject or the object of the relative clause • We can use which as the complement of a preposition • Relative clauses referring to a whole sentence are always introduced by which Relative pronouns: that We use that instead of who, whom or which in relative clauses to refer to people, animals and things. We use it to introduce defining clauses only. That is more informal than who, whom or which. • That can act as the subject or the object of the relative clause • We often use that after superlatives

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