Approximately 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by oceans, which are dynamic in nature. Oceans are considered as a potential resource of food, minerals and power. It is significant for trade and navigation. Ocean water is dynamic. There are two types of movements in water bodies— horizontal and vertical. Its movement is influenced by temperature, salinity, density and the external forces like sun, moon and winds.

The ocean currents and waves are in horizontal motion. The vertical motion refers to the tides. Waves are the undulations formed on the surface of water bodies like river, sea and ocean. Waves are produced by wind pushing the water towards the shore. The periodical rise and fall of the oceanic water is called tides. It is due to the attraction of Sun and Moon, once or twice in a day. The forces that cause tides are: Gravitational Pull and Centrifugal Force Tides may be grouped into various types on the basis of frequency position and distance On the basis of the frequency, tides can be classified as: Mixed tide Semi-diurnal tide and Diurnal tide On the basis of height, tides can be classified as spring tide and neap tide. On the basis of distance of Earth from the Sun, tides can be classified as Perihelion and Aphelion On the basis of distance of Earth from the Moon, tides can be classified as Perigean tides Apogean tides Ocean currents are the continuous flow of huge amount of water in a definite direction. On the basis of depth, currents can be classified as surface and deep water. On the basis of temperature, currents can be classified as warm and cold. These movements of oceans affect the climate and human activities.

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