C++ programming includes various concepts like C++ building blocks, character set, variables, constants, tokens, C++ data types, etc. C++ Character Set is a set of valid characters that a language can recognize. A character represents any letter, digit, special symbol, white space, or any of 256 ASCII characters as data or as literals. The smallest individual unit in a program is called token. C++ has the following tokens, keywords, identifiers, literals, punctuators, and operators. Identifiers are the fundamental building blocks of a program. Punctuators are the symbols used to express some statement or relation between different objects.
Operators are the symbols used for performing certain operations on the data for modifying its value. Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run. Operators represent the operations and objects of the operation are referred to as operands.
Operators comprise I\O, arithmetic, relational, logical and certain other types of operators. Programs not only store data but they also manipulate data in terms of consolidation, rearranging, modifying data. So, programs need tools for performing repetitive actions and for making decisions. C++ provides such tools by providing statements, called program control statements. An array is a collection of variables of the same type that are referenced by a common name. A function is a block of code that has a name and it has a property that it is reusable, i.e., it can be executed from as many different points in a C++ program as required.
The C++ language provides great flexibility on re-defining the existing data types. The typedef keyword is used to re-define the name of an existing data type.
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