Mineral and Power Resources
Minerals are the naturally occurring homogenous elements having a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties. They are the sources of different types of metals. They are formed in different types of geological environments. Graphite is one of the softest minerals on the earth. Diamond is the hardest known mineral. Minerals can be classified into metallic minerals and non-metallic minerals. Metallic minerals can further be classified into ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
Minerals with high percentage of iron metal are ferrous minerals. Examples are Iron ore, manganese, chromites, etc. Non-ferrous minerals do not contain iron, but may contain some other metals such as gold, silver, copper or lead. Examples: Zinc, bauxite, etc.
Mining is the digging out of the minerals buried under the interior layers of the earth. It is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore. The various types of mining are open cast mining, shaft mining, drilling and quarrying.
Minerals are found in different types of rocks. They are found in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rocks contain non-metallic minerals.
Power resources are geological resources used to generate power. They play a vital role in our lives. They can be classified into:
Conventional Sources of Energy, and
Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Conventional sources include most of the non-renewable resources whereas the non-conventional sources include most of the renewable resources.
Non-renewable resources are those resources, which cannot be renewed once they are finished. Ex – Coal, petroleum, etc.
Renewable resources are those resources, which can be renewed time and again. Ex – Solar energy, wind energy, etc.
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The age of the oldest rock isMarks:1
4,300 million years.
Explanation:The oldest rocks in the world are in Western Australia. They date from 4,300 million years ago, only 300 million years after the earth was formed.
Minerals are divided intoMarks:1
metallic and non-metallic.
Explanation:On the basis of composition, minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals. The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have characteristic luster or shine. The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. Mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are also non-metallic minerals.
An aggregate of one or more minerals without definite composition is calledMarks:1
Explanation:Rock is an indefinite mixture of naturally occuring substances, mainly minerals. Its composition may vary in containment of minerals and organic substances and are never exact. They can range from tiny microscopic grains of minerals or organic substances to coarse agglomerates of different minerals.
Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer. This process is known asMarks:1
open cast mining.
Explanation:Open-pit mining, also known as opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. The term is used to differentiate this form of mining from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth.
Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits, which lie at great depths. This process is called:Marks:1
Shaft mining is a form of underground mining using shafts driven vertically from the top down into the earth to access ore or minerals. Shaft mining, also termed shaft sinking, is particularly ideal for concentrated mineral deposits, such as iron or coal, that are deeply imbedded underground. Today, shaft mines are still found all over the world and most underground mines feature shafts.