Social Science

Earthquake is the violent shaking or jolt of the earth's surface due to movements originating from deep underground, which can cause a lot of damage. Tsunami is a gigantic wave or series of waves that smash into the shore, caused by an earthquake, volcanic eruptions or landslides under the sea.

Volcanic eruptions are explosions or emissions of lava, ashes and toxic gases from deep inside the earth, expelled through volcanoes. Socio-natural hazards are both natural and human induced like flood, drought and landslides.

Hazards can also be human-induced like, • Industrial accidents • Rail, road and air accidents • Terrorist attacks • Dam failures • Leakage of toxic waste • War and civil strife

Human- induced disaster is a serious disruption of normal life triggered by a human-induced hazard causing human, material, economic and environmental losses, which exceed the ability of those affected to cope.

Vulnerability is the condition determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes. It increases the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. The first phase in disaster management cycle is disaster phase. It is characterised by profound damage to the human society. Emergency response and relief is the period immediately after the occurrence of the disaster. Response to the disaster differs from person to person. During the recovery phase, the victims of the disaster are provided with a whole new environment, adequate enough to pursue a normal or at least near normal life. The population during the mitigation phase returns to pre-disaster standards of living. The people recognise the need for certain measures, which may be needed to reduce the impact of damage during the next disaster. The last phase of disaster management is preparedness phase. This phase involves the development of awareness among the population on the general aspects of disaster, and on how to behave in the face of a future disaster.

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