Classification and Factors Affecting Industries

India has all types of industries like iron and steel industry, textile industry, tourism industry, petrochemical industry, transport industry, electronic industry, etc. However, these industries are distributed unevenly. Factors affecting the location of industries are geographical factor and commercial factor. Geographical factors affecting location of industries are: Raw material Water supply Energy Transport Labour Market, and Climate Commercial Factors that influences the location of an industry are: Government Capital Banking facilities, and Organisational skills Industries classified on the basis of raw materials and finished goods are heavy industries and light industries. On the basis of location and market, industries are classified as village industries and cottage industries. Industries based on the finished products and functions are: Basic industries Consumer industries Tertiary industries, and Ancillary industries Industries are unevenly distributed in India. They are concentrated on certain locations due to favourable factors. Mumbai-Pune industrial region extends from Mumbai-Thane to Pune. Important industries are engineering goods, petroleum refining, petrochemicals, leather, synthetic and plastic goods, drugs, fertilisers, shipbuilding, electronics, software, transport equipments and food industries. Hugli industrial region is located along the Hugli River in West Bengal. Jute industry is concentrated at Haora and Bhatapara. Other important industries of this region are cotton textile, paper, electrical, engineering, pharmaceuticals, fertilisers, chemical and petrochemicals. Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu industrial region witnessed the most rapid industrial growth after independence. Cotton textile industry was the first to be established in this region. It is due to the availability of raw materials. Important industries of this region are textiles, medicine, cement, leather goods, rubber goods, aircraft, diesel engines, rail wagons, etc. Gujarat industrial region is centred on Ahmedabad and Vadodara. Major industries are: petrochemical, heavy and basic chemicals, diesel engines, engineering, pesticides, motor, textile machinery, pharmaceuticals, sugar, food processing, dairy products, etc. Chota Nagpur industrial region extends over Jharkhand, northern Odisha and western West Bengal. This region is known for heavy metallurgical industries. Important industries are heavy engineering, fertilisers, machine tools, cement, paper, heavy electrical, locomotives, etc. Vishakhapatnam- Guntur industrial region extends from Vishakhapatnam to the Kurnool and Prakasam districts in the South. Petrochemical industries grew due to the establishment of petroleum refinery. Important industries are sugar, textile, jute, paper, fertiliser, aluminium, cement, light engineering, etc. Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut industrial region grew very fast in the recent past. Important industries are sugar, electrical, hosiery, tractor, cement, chemical, electronics, leather, light engineering, machine tools and agricultural implements. Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram industrial region is spread over several districts of Kerala. Major industries of the region are sugar, cement, rubber, matchbox, glass, paper, coconut coir products, chemical fertiliser, food processing and cotton textile.

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