Types of Vegetation

Forests are one of the most significant features of the land surface. They are essential for the survival of animals and human beings on earth. Forests provide a number of resources to mankind. There is a continuous decline of forests due to their overexploitation by human beings. Demand for timber is increasing due to urbanisation and industrial expansion. This leads to an increase in deforestation. Absence of forests leads to soil erosion. Droughts occur, as precipitation has reduced due to loss of forest cover. Deforestation increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It leads to global warming, an increase in temperature of the earth’s surface and atmosphere. The conservation measures, which are required to stop the destruction of forests, are as follows: Increase area under forests Stop deforestation Create corridors between reserved forests Develop alternative sources of energy Strong legislation and implementation rules Increase people’s participation National Forest Policy was adopted by the Government of India in 1952. It was further modified in 1988. It lays emphasis on sustainable forest management. The prime objectives of National Forest Policy are as follows: Aims at maintenance of environmental stability Ecological balance should be preserved. If ecological balance is disturbed, it should be restored. Soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers, lakes, etc., should be checked. Soil and water conservation techniques should be applied for the mitigation of floods and droughts. Productivity of forests should be increased to meet national needs. Extension of sand dunes in desert areas should be checked. Social Forestry refers to the management and protection of forests. Another purpose of social forestry is afforestation of lands, which are not fit for agriculture. Agro forestry is a part of social forestry. It represents the intermediate stage between forestry and agriculture. Agro forestry aims to provide conservation of the land and its improvement. It also aims to achieve a combined produce of forest and agricultural crops. Wildlife Protection Act was passed by the Government of India in 1972. Several animals were listed as endangered species. Introduction of Project Tiger, Project Rhino and many other eco-developmental projects were launched under this act.

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