An Era of Crisis

After Germany’s defeat in WW-II, it was divided into four parts, with capital Berlin divided into two. In 1948, its Western zones merged to form West Germany. USSR blocked transportation to West Berlin. So commodities were airlifted to West Berlin. In 1949, USSR lifted blockade. Soviet-occupied zone of Germany became East Germany. Berlin Wall, constructed in 1961, snapped communication between East and West Berlin. In 1956, Hungarians revolted against Rakosi, whose replacement – Nagy – introduced reforms. Russian troops crushed Hungarian rebellion, installing pro-Russian government. In Czechoslovakia, Alexander Dubcek introduced reforms, leading to Russian invasion, which overthrew him. Till WW-II, Japan controlled Korea, after which it was divided into Communist North Korea and anti-communist South Korea. In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea, but was pushed back by UN forces. Korean War ended in 1953. Till Second World War, French occupied Vietnam, followed by Japan. After War, French reoccupied Vietnam, but were defeated by Communists. At Geneva Convention (1954), Vietnam was divided into Communist North Vietnam and pro-US South Vietnam. US, fearing communist expansion, attacked North Vietnam in 1964, for which it was criticized. In 1959, Communist revolution in Cuba installed Fidel Castro as leader. In 1962, Soviet Union tried building missile base in Cuba. US announced naval blockade around Cuba. Finally, USSR decided to remove missile base from Cuba. USA supported puppet Arab goverments and Jewish state of Israel to check Arab nationalism, which was supported by USSR. Newly-independent Asian and African countries formed Non-Aligned Movement to stay away from Cold War. In 1990, West and East Germany merged. All East European countries overthrew communism. Paris Pact and START Pact also facilitated end of Cold War.

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