Respiration

Cellular respiration is a step-wise oxidation of glucose in a cell that utilises oxygen and produces carbon dioxide and water with the release of energy in the form of ATP.

Compounds oxidised during the process of respiration are known as respiratory substrates.

The two types of respiration on the basis of respiratory substrates utilised by them are: floating respiration and protoplasmic respiration.

The two types of respiration depending upon the availability of oxygen are: aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

Aerobic respiration is the complete oxidation of organic substances in the presence of oxygen.

Anaerobic respiration is the respiration that takes place in the complete absence of oxygen.

The three types of anaerobes that can survive in the absence of oxygen are: facultative, obligate and aerotolerant anaerobes.

Break down of glucose and the formation of ATP molecule require five major processes that are as follows: Glycolysis or Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway, Oxidation or Pyruvic Acid, Kreb’s cycle or Tricarboxylic acid cycle (or TCA cycle) or oxidative decarboxylation, Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Chemiosmotic ATP Synthesis.

Respiratory quotient is the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide evolved to that of volume of oxygen consumed.

Amphibolic pathway is a central metabolic pathway used in both anabolism and catabolism.

The compensation point is the amount of light intensity on a light curve where the rate of photosynthesis accurately matches the rate of respiration in the photosynthetic organs.

The compensation point is very low in C4 plants as compared to C3 plants.

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