IUPAC Nomenclature of Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are the organic compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon only. The hydrocarbons are classified into two types namely: Acyclic or open chain compounds (contain open chain of carbon atoms in their molecules) and Cyclic or closed chain compounds (contain closed chain or rings of carbon atoms in their molecules).
On the basis of the type of carbon–carbon bonds present, acyclic or open chain hydrocarbons are further classified into saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes are the saturated hydrocarbon whereas alkenes and alkynes are the unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes are classified into straight chain alkanes and branched chain alkanes.
Alkanes are classified into straight chain alkanes and branched chain alkanes. In case of straight chain alkanes, the suffix ‘-ane’ is added to the ‘root word’ which indicates the number of carbon atoms present in the chain.
In case of straight chain alkenes the suffix ‘-ene’ is added to the root word. In case of straight chain alkynes the suffix ‘-yne’ is added to the root word.
Branched chain hydrocarbons are named according to some rules.
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