Productivity and Cropping Pattern
India is an agrarian economy. It produces variety of food grains, cereals, fruits, etc. However, India’s agricultural productivity is lower than that of the other countries with comparable natural environment. There are certain factors responsible for the backwardness of agriculture, which are as follows:
There are however many remedial measures for low agricultural productivity, they are:
Use of better seeds
Consolidation of holdings
Check on population growth
Improvements in agricultural credit and
Improvements in marketing system
Alternatives for irrigation facilities
Launch co-operative joint farming on a national scale
Encouragement to agricultural research and plant protection and
Soil conservation and intensive cultivation
The proportion of land covered under different crops at a particular period of time shows the cropping pattern of a country. The cropping pattern of a country depends upon different factors, which are as follows:
Size of holdings
Availability of agricultural inputs
Crop insurance scheme and
Price of agricultural products
Economic planning and five year plans aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food grain production. Agriculture sector has experienced progress since 1951, which was reflected through the following indicators:
Growth rate of output
Increase in productivity
Increase in production of agricultural crops
The government launched National Agricultural Policy (2000). The objectives of national agricultural policy are:
To utilize agricultural resources efficiently.
To attain 4% annual growth rate of agricultural production.
The features of this policy are as follows:
Use of combination of measures including structural, institutional, tax reforms, etc.
Focus on efficient use of resources, availability of credit and protection of farmers from unexpected price fluctuations, etc.
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