Productivity and Cropping Pattern


India is an agrarian economy. It produces variety of food grains, cereals, fruits, etc. However, India’s agricultural productivity is lower than that of the other countries with comparable natural environment. There are certain factors responsible for the backwardness of agriculture, which are as follows:

    Demographic factors

    General factors

    Institutional factors

    Technological factors

There are however many remedial measures for low agricultural productivity, they are:

    Use of better seeds

    Consolidation of holdings

    Check on population growth

    Improvements in agricultural credit and

    Improvements in marketing system

    Alternatives for irrigation facilities

    Launch co-operative joint farming on a national scale

    Encouragement to agricultural research and plant protection and

    Soil conservation and intensive cultivation

The proportion of land covered under different crops at a particular period of time shows the cropping pattern of a country. The cropping pattern of a country depends upon different factors, which are as follows:

    Natural factors

    Social factors

    Size of holdings

    Availability of agricultural inputs

    Cropping pattern

    Government efforts

    Crop insurance scheme and

    Price of agricultural products

Economic planning and five year plans aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food grain production. Agriculture sector has experienced progress since 1951, which was reflected through the following indicators:

    Growth rate of output

    Increase in productivity

    Increase in production of agricultural crops

The government launched National Agricultural Policy (2000). The objectives of national agricultural policy are:

    To utilize agricultural resources efficiently.

    To attain 4% annual growth rate of agricultural production.

The features of this policy are as follows:

    Use of combination of measures including structural, institutional, tax reforms, etc.

    Focus on efficient use of resources, availability of credit and protection of farmers from unexpected price fluctuations, etc.

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