Climate - Classification
Weather is the study of atmospheric condition for a short duration i.e., for a day or week.
Climate is the study of the average weather condition observed over a long period of time for a larger area i.e., for 30 to 35 years.
Different climates are found in different parts of the world. Climate can be classified on the basis of temperature and latitude.
On the basis of the temperature, climatic regions may be classified as Tropical or Torrid Zone, Temperate or Mid-latitude Zone and Frigid or Polar Zone.
On the basis of latitudes, climatic zones are classified as tropical region, subtropical region, temperate region, and polar region.
Many Climatologists divided the climates of the world into various types on different basis.
On the basis of various classifications, world climates can widely be divided into low latitude climates, mid latitude climates and high latitude climates.
These climates are further classified into different climatic regions on the basis of climatic conditions, vegetations and other factors specific to these regions.
Four major low latitude climates are Equatorial Climate, Monsoon or Trade Wind Littoral Climate, Wet- Dry Tropical Climate, and Dry Tropical or Tropical Desert Climate.
Equatorial Climate extends up to 10° north to 10°
Monsoon and trade wind littoral climate is found from 5° to 37° north and south latitudes in the eastern part of the continents.
Wet and Dry Tropical Climate or Savanna climate is found between 5º and 20º latitudes in both the hemispheres.
Dry Tropical Climate is found between 15° and 34° north and south latitudes.
The six types of climates found in this zone are Mediterranean climate, Marine west coast climate, Dry sub tropical climate, Moist sub tropical climate, Moist continental climate, and Dry mid latitude Climate or Cold deserts.
Areas of Mediterranean climate extend from 30º to 45º north and south latitudes.
Marine west coast climate extends from 40° to 65° north and south latitudes.
Dry Sub Tropical Climate or Steppe type of climate is located between the middle latitudes and extends from 30 ° to 45 ° north and south latitudes.
Moist Sub-tropical or china type climate extends between 25° and 45° latitudes in both the hemispheres.
Moist Continental Climate is found in the interior parts of the big continents between the taiga and the mid latitude deserts.
Dry Mid Latitude or Cold Deserts Climate is mainly found on the plateaus outside the Tropics.
The climates found in high latitude zone are Boreal climate or Taiga climate, Tundra climate, The Ice- cap climate, and Climate of the Highlands.
Boreal climate or Taiga climate is found between 50° and 70° north latitude.
The Tundra climate is found from 66½° north to the northern most top limits of the continents.
Ice- cap climate is found in the continent of Antarctica, interior parts of Greenland, Iceland and Arctic Islands near the poles.
Climate of the highlands is found in the Alps, the Himalayas, the Tibetan plateau, the Rockies and the Andes.
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