Universal Law of Gravitation
Gravitation causes motion of the planet. The idea that the central body of our planetary system is sun rather than earth was introduced by Copernicus. Galileo’s telescope helped to support Copernicus theory. Kepler later on confirmed by proposing his three laws popularly known as Kepler’s law of planetary motion: Law of orbits, Law of areas, Law of time periods. There are few conclusions drawn by Newton from Kepler’s laws.
Newton’s observation of an apple falling from a tree led to his Universal Law of Gravitation. This law states that every particle of matter of this universe attracts every other particle with a force which varies directly as the product of the masses of two particles and inversely as the square of the distance between them. This law provided an explanation of terrestrial gravitation and Kepler’s law.
Gravitation is measured through acceleration due to gravity. It is defined as the acceleration produced by the force of gravity. A knowledge of acceleration due to gravity helps to determine various quantities: mass of the Earth, density of Earth, mass of Sun. There is variation of gravitational acceleration of earth due to the altitude, depth and latitude of the Earth.
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