There has been an acute shortage of food many times in history because of various reasons. Millions of people have died of starvation. There was not enough food to feed the huge population in this world. Then, there was one person who brought a different kind of revolution in this hungry world. He was Dr. Norman Borlaug, inventor of HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds. He is credited with bringing food on the plates of millions of hungry people. With the help of HYV seeds and improved agricultural techniques, there was a significant increase in the agricultural productivity. This was called green revolution. In primitive subsistence agriculture, the farmer produced crops only to feed his family. Sometimes, a little surplus was available for sale in the market. The foundations of Green Revolution are formed by: High Yielding Variety (HYV) Seeds Chemical Fertilisers Irrigation Insecticides and Pesticides Abolition of Zamindari System Farm Mechanisation Rural Electrification Green Revolution had a profound impact on the economy and way of life in India. The major benefits of Green Revolution in India were: Increase in Agricultural Production Prosperity of Farmers Reduction in Import of Food grains Capitalistic Farming Ploughing back of Profit Industrial Growth Rural Employment, and Change in Attitude of Farmers Green revolution has led to the unprecedented growth of Indian agriculture but there are certain demerits of green revolution, some of which are: Intercrop imbalances Regional disparities Increase in inter-personal inequalities, and Unemployment Wheat got the greatest benefit drawn from Green Revolution. Rice has also benefitted to some extent. Other crops like cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, pulses and oilseeds should also be brought under the canvas of Green Revolution. This requirement can only be met by a ‘Second Green Revolution’. Second Green Revolution refers to practicing sustainable agriculture. Green agriculture is a system of agriculture that is done with the help of integrated pest management, integrated nutrient supply, and integrated natural resources management systems. Eco-agriculture is defined as an approach that brings agricultural development and conservation of biodiversity together. White agriculture is a system of agriculture based on substantial use of microorganisms, particularly ‘fungi’. For diversifying agriculture, apart from increasing crop production, emphasis should also be laid on animal husbandry, fishing, dairy farming, poultry farming, etc. Animal husbandry forms a very important part of Indian agriculture. India has the largest livestock population in the world that comprises cow, buffalo, sheep, goat and pig.
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