A mixture is a combination of two or more substances mixed in any ratio. Separation of mixtures is done to remove harmful substances or to obtain a pure sample of a substances. Mixtures can be separated by using the principle that different substances have different properties. Mixtures of solids can be separated by handpicking, sieving, winnowing, threshing, magnetic separation and sublimation. Magnetic separation is a technique by which magnetic substance like iron is separated from non-magnetic substance. The change in state from solid to gas without passing through liquid state is called sublimation. Iodine, ammonium chloride etc. sublime on heating. Components of solid-liquid mixture can be separated by using filtration or evaporation or condensation or churning or sedimentation and decantation methods. Filtration is used for separating solid impurities from a liquid using a filter like filter paper. Evaporation is the process of changing of a liquid into its vapours. Salt is obtained from sea water through evaporation by the method of salt farming. Condensation is the process of changing a gas or vapour into a liquid. Churning process is used for separating lighter particles of solid suspended in liquid. The settling down of heavier particles of insoluble solid in the liquid is called sedimentation. The process of separating clear liquid without disturbing the settled solid particles is called decantation. Crystallisation is used to separate dissolved solids from liquids. Distillation is the process of converting a liquid into its vapour by heating and then condensing or cooling vapour in the pure liquid state. Miscible liquids can be separated by fractional distillation while immiscible liquids can be separated by using separating funnel. Chromatography is used to separate the components that are soluble in the same solvent. Centrifugation is the process where a mixture is separated through spinning. Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. In non-aqueous solution, any liquid other than water is used as solvent.
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