Climate, Vegetation and Wild Life
Climate is the average weather, usually taken over a 30-year period for a particular region. There are basically two important factors affecting the climate of Australia. These are latitudes and direction of mountain ranges. Australia has the following climatic regions: Monsoon Type Savanna Type Tropical Desert Mediterranean Type China Type Temperate grassland, and British Type The extent of monsoon type climatic region includes the northern part of Australia, which includes Western Australia, Northern Territory and Queensland. In this region, low pressure over the land attracts monsoon winds and results in rainfall, which varies from year to year. Tropical Deciduous forests are found in this region. Savanna type of climate is found in the broad belt to the South of the monsoon type. In the Savanna climatic region, summers are hot and moist and winters are cool and dry. The vegetation of this climatic region comprises of woodlands and grasses. Tropical desert extends over a large part of Australia. It covers almost the whole of Western Plateau. It comprises of the Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert and the Sandy Desert. The vegetation of tropical desert includes thorny bushes, acacia, etc. Mediterranean type of climatic region is found in the southern part, which includes parts of Western Australia, Southern Australia and Victoria. This type of climate is characterised by hot and dry summers and cold and wet winters. Several varieties of eucalyptus, mallee bushes, Kauri trees, etc. are found in this climatic region. Temperate grasslands are found in the Murray-Darling basin. They are also known as ‘Downs’. The climate of temperate grasslands is characterised by hot summers, cold winters and average rainfall. British type of climate is found in Tasmania. This climatic region is characterised by warm summers and mild winters, and moderate to high rainfall throughout the year. The vegetation of British type consists of Temperate Deciduous forests. The wildlife of Australia is also unique. Important animals found in Australia are kangaroo, koala, duckbilled platypus, etc.
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