Political History and Administration

The Gupta dynasty united after the fall of Satavahana and Kushana Empires. The Gupta dynasty ruled India in the ‘Golden Age’ of ancient Indian history. Chandragupta I ascended the throne of Magadha in 320 CE. He married Kumaradevi, princess of the Lichchhavi tribe. He got Pataliputra as part of his dowry. He took the title of ‘Maharajadhiraja’. Samudragupta ascended the throne of Magadha after the death of Chandragupta I. Samudragupta followed a policy of ‘conquest and expansion’. Kingdom of Nepal, Assam and Gangetic Delta accepted him as their overlord. He celebrated his victory by performing the ‘Ashvamedha Yagna’ and taking the title of Maharajadhiraja. He patronized scholars like Harisena. Chandragupta II Vikramaditya was a powerful ruler who gave his daughter in marriage to the Vakataka rulers of Deccan. He housed the nine gems or navaratnas that included the famous poet, Kalidasa. The Chinese scholar, FaHien visited India during his reign. Chandragupta II Vikramaditya was succeeded by his son, Kumaragupta. Kumaragupta’s successor, Skandagupta defeated the Huns who invaded India. In the beginning of 7th century CE, Harshavardhana, the king of Thaneswar, united the kingdom. Vishyapatis looked after the villages. The princes were appointed as the governor of provinces, and were assisted by officers called, Kumaramatyas.

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