Oceans cover about 3/4th of the surface of earth. Oceanography is the scientific study of oceans. Ocean floor is not completely flat. It has great depths known as ocean deeps or trenches. It has mountains, which are known as seamounts rising above water as islands. On the basis of the records and exploration, the oceanic bottom has five important features. They are: The Continental Shelf The Continental Slope The Abyssal Plains The Mid-Ocean Ridge, and The Trenches Continental shelf has some of the chief fishing grounds. The Continental shelf is a gently sloping floor along the shallow sea. It is formed by the erosive action of sea. Continental shelf has chief fishing grounds. They are also the store-house for offshore oil and gas reserves. A steep slope which links continental shelf with deep ocean floor is known as ‘continental slope’. Vast plains found on the ocean floor are known as Abyssal plains. They are dotted with abyssal hills, valleys and underwater volcanoes. The mid-ocean ridge is a huge chain of underwater mountains. The trenches are the deepest part of the ocean floor. The deepest trench is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. A vast variety of sea-life is found from the sunlit surface water to the dark seafloor. They are adapted to different depths and different latitudes. Temperature decreases with the increase in altitude and depth from the sea level. The water grows colder with the increasing depth. Oceans are very important for survival of living beings on earth.
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