National Movement : 1930-1947(2)
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched by Gandhi, with Salt Satyagraha in March, 1930. The government suppressed the movement by arresting all the important leaders like Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. The British sent the Cripps Mission to India in 1942 to get active Indian cooperation during the World War II, the Mission failed. Mahatma Gandhi gave Indians the mantra of ‘Do or Die’. The Congress passed the Quit India Resolution on 9th August 1942. Police Stations, post offices and other government buildings were destroyed along with the disruption of railway, telegraph and phone services. The upsurge of 1942 was the last great challenge to British authority as it shook the very foundation of British rule in India. Subhas Chandra Bose had resigned from the Congress in 1939 and formed a party called the Forward Bloc, later organised the Azad Hind Fauj or the Indian National Army. He gave the battle cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. Bose is believed to have been killed in a plane crash on his way to Tokyo in 1945. Lord Mountbatten, the new Viceroy, arrived in India in 1947 to prepare a plan for the ‘transfer of power’. The Indian Independence Act was passed in July 1947 by the British Parliament. The British rule in India finally came to an end on 15th August 1947, resulted in the Indian Independence and Partition of India. On 30th January 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated. The Constitution of India was enacted and adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949, introduced on 26th January 1950, making India a ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’.
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