Graphical Representation of Data
Data available to us is in an unorganized form. In order to draw meaningful inferences from any data, the data needs to be organized systematically. Data can be represented graphically using various tools such as bar graphs, double bar graphs, pie charts etc.
Bar graph is the simplest and most widely used graph, in which the numerical data is represented by the height of rectangular bars of equal width. Double bar graph is a graph that uses pairs of bars to compare and show the relationship between two sets of data. Bar graphs are generally used for the data of simple frequency distribution
Data can also be presented using circle graph or pie chart. A circle graph shows the relationship between a whole and its part. Whole circle is divided into sectors to represent different parts. The angle whose vertex is at the centre of the circle is called central angle.
The central angles are proportional to the measures of the given quantities, i.e., size of a sector is proportional to the information it represents. Pie charts are generally used for the data in which frequencies are clearly comparable
(i.e., frequencies having large differences) because the viewer cannot be expected to measure each central angle with a protractor.
Histogram is a special type of bar graph. The difference between bar graph and histogram is that the latter is used to represent grouped frequency distribution graphically.
A line graph is used to represent the data that changes continuously over the periods of time. In a line graph, data is represented through solid dots. All dots are joined by line segments. Sometimes two sets of data is represented on same set of axes to compare the data.
In a line graph, the bits of line segments are joined consecutively. Sometimes the graph may be a whole unbroken line. Such type of graphs are called linear graphs.
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