Pollution: Water and Soil

Rapid advancement in industries, transport, agriculture, thermal and nuclear generation etc. is deteriorating our environment and causing pollution.

Any undesirable change in the quality of water which makes it unsuitable for use by humans and by other living organisms is called water pollution.

Sources of water pollution are household detergents, sewage, industrial waste, oil spills, thermal pollution and chemical fertilizers. Water pollution adversely affects the aquatic life. The polluted water spread various diseases in human beings such as jaundice and cholera.

Any contamination in the soil due to man-made chemicals or substances is called soil pollution.

The sources of the soil pollution include industrial waste, urban waste, biomedical waste etc.

The soil pollution can be prevented or controlled by safe disposal of waste, use of bio-pesticides and bio-fertilizers, and recycling of waste.

The soil erosion is the removal or disappearance of soil, by water (flooding, rain) or by wind. It can be natural or man-made.

The waste can be catergorised into two types namely biodegradable waste and non-biodegradable waste.

Biodegradable waste can be degraded by the microorganisms while non-biodegradable waste cannot be degraded by the microorganisms.

Paper and vegetable peels are the examples of biodegradable wastes while plastic is an example of non-biodegradable waste.

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