Derivatives of skin
The structures that have their derivations from the skin are called skin derivatives.
Skin and its derivatives like hair, nails, glands and various receptors form the integumentary system.
Hair is an elastic strand of dead, keratinized cells. It is a thread like structure, which forms the exoskeleton of mammals and provides protection, warmth etc. Hair comprises of follicle, bulb, papilla and shaft.
Nail is a scale like epidermal modification which grows as dead cells from the ends of fingers and toes. Nail is composed of plate, bed and matrix. Nails protect the fingertips and adjoining soft tissues from injuries.
The sebaceous glands produce an oily substance called sebum that prevents dehydration. Sebum is a metabolic waste that remain after breakdown of fat cells.
Acne, blackhead and pimples are the common problems associated with sebaceous glands.
The sweat glands are simple tubular glands on the dermis that produce sweat.
Mammary glands are modified sweat glands that develop during puberty in females and produce milk during lactation.
Meibomian glands or tarsal glands are modified sebaceous glands, which are found at the edge of eyelids.
Ceruminous glands are present in the lining of outer ear and produce earwax.
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