Population - Advantages and disadvantages

Introduction

Overpopulation is a kind of situation that exists in a country where its population increases more quickly than its supply of food. The consequences of overpopulation are overcrowding, depletion of natural resources and environmental deterioration.

The rising trend of population growth in India is a matter of concern. The population situation in India is alarming; India is the 2nd most populated country after China. However, in India the rate of growth of population is out of proportions to its other achievements. The features of population in India are rapidly rising density, large size and fast growing population, bottom heavy age structure and composition of population, sex ratio composition unfavourable to females, pre-dominance of rural population, etc. The causes of population explosion can be broadly categorized as birth rate higher than death rate and immigration is more than emigration. The causes of high birth rate in India are: universality of marriage, early marriage, poverty, social customs, etc. The causes of low death rate in India are: spread of medical facilities, spread of education among women, fall in infant mortality, etc. There are however, various measures to control population. They are: wide publicity of family planning programme, increase in spread of education, rise in standard of living, etc.

Over population of a country proves to be both boon and the bane. The advantages of over population are: expansion of market, increase in national output, more employment opportunities, availability of cheap labour, source of means of production and saving and investment and more number of intelligent brains. The disadvantages of over population are: adverse effect on environment, unemployment, food scarcity, poverty, higher demographic investment, obstacle to economic development, lower per capita income and sources of many social evils.

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