The Mughal Empire II
Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat in 1526. After laying foundation of Mughal Empire, he died in 1530. Humayun succeeded Babur, but was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, due to which he left Hindustan. After regaining Delhi and Agra, he died in 1556. Sher Shah Suri, after defeating Humayun, became ruler, before dying in 1545. He organised an efficient Administration. Akbar, in his Early Rule, was mentored by Bairam Khan. He made many Conquests. He had liberal Religious Ideas. Jahangir, in his Early Rule, was challenged by Prince Khusrau, who was executed. He married Nur Jahan in 1611, who became power behind throne. Prince Khurram succeeded as Shah Jahan in 1628. He built Taj Mahal in memory of Mumtaz Mahal. After Aurangzeb occupied throne, Shah Jahan died. Aurangzeb reversed Akbar’s Rajput and religious policies.
Rule of Later Mughals started with Bahadur Shah I, succeeded by Jahandar Shah. He was killed by Sayyid brothers, who installed Farrukhsiyar and later deposed him. Muhammad Shah deposed them. Ahmad Shah was deposed in 1754. Alamgir II, Shah Alam II and Akbar II were emperors only in name. Bahadur Shah Zafar was last Mughal emperor. After Revolt of 1857, he was sent to Rangoon, where he died.
Causes for Decline of Mughals include Administrative Causes - nobles’ rivalries and Jagirdari crisis. In Economic Causes, economic bankruptcy and Aurangzeb’s Deccan campaign are prominent. Military Causes were problems in Mansabdari System and failure to modernise army. Aurangzeb’s Policies of religious intolerance and Deccan campaigns also accelerated Mughal decline. Mughal Successors emerged after war of succession, which were costly and destructive. Foreign Invasions of Nadir Shah, and increasing British dominance also accelerated Mughal decline.
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