Convection is the mode of heat transfer in liquids and gases. In this phenomenon, particles of a medium move to the source of heat energy, and on absorbing heat energy move away from it, thereby making space for other particles to move to the source. It is not possible in the case of solids because molecules in solids are not free to leave their position. We can experimentally show the convection in liquids and gases. Convection current always moves in upward direction. The two most important applications of convection currents in liquids are ocean currents and car radiators. Ocean currents carry a large amount of heat energy, and thus, help in moderating the weather near the coastal regions. The cooling system of car radiators is also based on the principle of convection currents. Ventilation, sea breeze, land breeze and wind systems in atmosphere are applications of convection in gases. Ventilation is a process by which impure and warm air inside the room gets continuously replaced by the fresh air from outside. Sea breeze refers to the cold and humid air above the sea that starts blowing towards the land. Land breeze refers to the cold and heavy air from land, which starts blowing towards the sea. Winds are convection currents in air formed due to the unequal heating of the earth.
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