Sources of the Indian Constitution.

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Constitution Day of India is celebrated on the 26th of November each year. Also known as the Samvidhaan Diwas in Hindi, it marks the day of the adoption of the Indian Constitution by the Constituent Assembly – which functioned as the first parliament of independent India. It was on 26th November 1949 that the Indian Constitution was finally adopted, after close to 3 years of intense debates and discussions among the members of the Constituent Assembly, and it came into force on 26th January 1950.

The Constitution of India is a unique document influenced by the Constitutions of many nations. The country’s founding fathers were wise enough to borrow good features from others and mould it in a way that suited Indian aspirations and challenges.

Indian Constitution is unique in its way as it is the most detailed constitution across the globe. It originally consisted of 395 articles which have now increased to 448. In contrast, the American Constitution has only seven articles, and the Australian Constitution has 128 articles.

It is drafted considering the geographical diversity of India, the historical perspective of Indian Nationalist struggles, and its traditional and characteristics, unlike any other nation.

Let’s take a quick look at the way Constitutions of different nations have influenced our own. Here is a table to help you remember.

Major Sources of Indian Constitution
Constitution Features
Constitution of the United States of America
Fundamental Rights
Federal Structure of Government
Electoral College
Independence of the Judiciary and separation of powers among the three branches of the Government
Judicial Review
President as the Supreme Commander of Armed Forces
Equal Protection Under Law
British Constitution Parliamentary Government
Single Citizenship
Rule of law
Writs
Speaker and his/her role
Law Making Procedure
Procedure established by Law
Canadian Constitution A Quasi-Federal form of government, with the following features —
A Federal Structure with a Centre
Distribution of powers between the Central Government and state governments
Residual Powers retained by the Central Government
 Irish Constitution Directive Principles of State Policy
Nomination of members to Rajya Sabha (Upper House)
Method of Election of President
French Constitution The ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
Australian Constitution Freedom of trade and commerce within the country and between the states
Power of the National Legislature to make laws for implementing treaties, even on matters outside normal Federal Jurisdiction
Concurrent List
Constitution of the Soviet Union (USSR) Fundamental Duties under Article 51-A
A Constitutionally mandated Planning Commission
Constitution of South Africa Procedure for Amendment
Election of Rajya Sabha (Upper House) members
Constitution of Germany Emergency Provisions
Constitution of Japan Procedure Established by Law

 

The celebration of the Indian Constitution Day helps us become mindful of the principles and fundamentals upon which post-independence India was envisioned. Let’s use this day to revisit our core and vow to become responsible citizens of the country.