(i) Baba Guru Nanak emphasized the importance of the worship of one God.
(ii) He insisted that caste, creed or gender was irrelevant for attaining liberation.
(iii) His idea of liberation was not that of a state of inert ecstasy but rather the pursuit of active life with a strong sense of social commitment.
(iv) He himself used the terms nam, dan and isnan for the essence of his teaching, which actually meant right worship, welfare of others and purity of conduct.
(i) Many teachers rejected prevalent religious beliefs and practices because it sustained social differences in the society.
(ii) The religious scriptures of the period argued that all human beings were not equal even at birth.
(iii) Those teachings supported the upper caste people and lower caste people were victims.
(iv) However, the teachers believed in equality of God and wanted to eradicate the evils of the society.
(v) They taught the masses that the bondage can be broken by approaching the Supreme God with devotion (bhakti).
(i) Sufis were Muslim mystics.
(ii) They rejected outward religiosity and emphasised love and devotion to God and compassion towards all fellow human beings.
(iii) Islam propagated strict monotheism or submission to one God. It also rejected idol worship and simplified rituals of worship into collective prayers.
(v) At the same time, Muslim scholars developed a holy law called Shariat.
(vi) The Sufis rejected the elaborate rituals and codes of behaviour demanded by the Shariat law.
(vii) They sought union with God much as a lover seeks his beloved with a disregard for the world.
(i) Kabir’s teachings completely, strongly rejected the major religious traditions.
(ii) His ideas openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam, the pre-eminence of the priestly classes and the caste system.
(iii) He believed in a formless Supreme God and preached that the only path to salvation was through Bhakti (devotion).
(iv) His followers were from both Hindus and Muslims.
(v) He expressed his poetry in a form of spoken Hindi widely understood by ordinary people.
(vi) He also sometimes used a difficult cryptic language.
(i) The Nathpanthis, Siddhacharas and Yogis criticised the ritual and superstitious aspects of conventional religion and the social order, with clear logical arguments.
(ii) They advocated renunciation of the world.
(iii) To them the path to salvation lay in meditation on the formless Ultimate Reality and the realisation of oneness with it.
(iv) To achieve this, they advocated intense training of the mind and body through practices like yogasanas, breathing exercises and meditation.
(v) Most of their followers were from the so-called “low” caste communities.
(vi) Their criticism of conventional religion paved way for the emergence of the devotional religion as a popular force in northern India.
(a) Shankara was an advocate of Advaita.
(b) Ramanuja was influenced by the Alvars.
(c) Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi were advocates of Virashaivism.
(d) Pandharpur was an important centre of the Bhakti tradition in Maharashtra.
(i) Mirabai’s songs openly challenged the norms of the “upper” castes and became popular with the ordinary people in the regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
(ii) Her songs were composed in regional languages and were sung by the masses.
(iii) They became immensely popular and were handed down orally from generation to generation.
(iv) Usually the poorest, most deprived communities and women transmitted these songs, often adding their own experiences.
(v) Thus the songs of Mirabai are the creation of the saints and the ordinary people who sang them.
The Virashaivas’ attitude towards caste:
(i) Virashaiva movement was initiated by Basavanna and his companions like Allama Prabhu and Akkamahadevi.
(ii) This movement began in Karnataka in the mid-twelfth century.
(iii) The Virashaivas argued strongly for the equality of all human beings and against Brahmanical ideas about caste and the ill-treatment of women.
(iv) They were also against all forms of ritual and idol worship.
The Buddha questioned social differences
Nizamuddin Auliya Sufi saint
Nayanars worship of Shiva
Alvars worship of Vishnu
Yes, the NCERT book has been designed keeping in mind the pattern of paper that will be presented in the exam to students. The NCERT book is sufficient to study for the exam as it has everything related to the exam and contains all information out of which the questions will be asked in the exam. But if you want to prepare a little bit extra, we suggest that you go through the NCERT class 7 solutions.
When you are studying the NCERT book for math and other subjects for your class 7 exams, refer to the NCERT class 7 solutions simultaneously so you can see where you are going wrong and what are you getting right in your exercises’ attempt.
The class 7th is very crucial as it is among the major middle school classes during which the child’s base is formed in math and science and even in other subjects like English. Thus, it is students must study smartly in this class and ace their exams while getting all the help they need from the NCERT 7 solutions given by Extramarks.
Yes, absolutely. The NCERT solutions provided by Extramarks for class 7 are eloquent and elaborate at best and are thus useful for students studying for the final exams of class 7. The students will have many questions and doubts regarding the NCERT solutions for class 7 and this is why the solutions have been elaborated well to help students understand the answers to exercises.
Yes, the NCERT solutions for Math and other subjects for class 7 are available for free from Extramarks.