Conditionals In grammar, conditional sentences are sentences discussing factual implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences. Syntactically, the condition is the subordinate clause, and the consequence is the main clause. In English, conditional sentences can be divided into two broad classes of factual and counterfactual. These can be further divided into four types: zero conditional, first conditional, second conditional, and third conditional. Factual conditionals: In these constructions, the conditional clause expresses a condition, the truth of which can be unverified. The “zero” conditional is used to express general truth, universal statements, or things that are always true as long as the condition is met. The ‘first conditional’ is used to express a hypothetical condition that is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. In counterfactual sentences, the conditional clause expresses a condition that is known to be false or presented as unlikely. There are different types of counterfactual conditionals - Second conditional, third conditional, third second mixed conditionals, second third mixed conditionals The second conditional is used to express unreal situations in the present or unlikely future. Third conditional is used when we are talking about the past and imagining something different from what actually happened, were the conditions for the action were not satisfied. Third-second mixed conditionals: These are used for imaginary present actions or situations that are not possible because the necessary conditions were not met in the past. Second-third mixed conditionals are used to avoid the illogicality of saying 'if i had been you', which means that i was not you on that occasion, but could be in the future, which is, of course, impossible. Different ways of replacing ‘if’ We can replace ‘if’ by using ‘unless’, imperatives, interrogative sentences (replace “if” with “do” and put a question mark at the end), conjunctional phrases, participial phrases, or using the preposition ‘but’ or using ‘were to’ - ‘were to’ to express a condition and replace the ‘if-clause’ in certain sentences. Concession and contrast Concession is the use of a word, phrase or sentence that diminishes and may contradict implications of a statement or description. Words or phrases commonly used in English to indicate concession are "however," "nevertheless," "despite," "in spite of," "even so," and "although.” We can express concession and contrast by using conjunctions (although, though, even though, while, whereas, whilst, etc.), prepositions (in spite of, in spite of the fact that, despite, despite the fact that, not withstanding, etc.) or adverbs and transition signals.

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