A type of word formation in which a verb or an adjective (or other Parts of Speech) is used as a noun is called nominalization.
Verbs can be converted into nouns. Look at some examples:
gild - gold, graze - grass, Halve - half, choose - choice, nominalise – nominalization, break - breach, emancipate - emancipation, refuse - refusal, promote - promotion
Similarly adjectives too can be converted into nouns.
agree - agreement, hungry – hunger, young - youth, silent - silence, mysterious – mystery, disastrous - disaster, happy - happiness, applicable - applicability, careless - carelessness
Nominalisation using “ing” Forms
An especially common case of verbs being used as nouns is the addition of the suffix –’ing’, known in English as a Gerund.
The Gerund is identical in form to the Present Participle (ending in -ing) and can behave as a verb within a clause, but the clause as a whole acts as a noun within the larger sentence.
Swimming is fun.
Breathing helps you to calm down.
Smoking is injurious to health.