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A type of word formation in which a verb or an adjective (or other Parts of Speech) is used as a noun is called nominalization. Verbs can be converted into nouns. Look at some examples: gild - gold, graze - grass, Halve - half, choose - choice, nominalise – nominalization, break - breach, emancipate - emancipation, refuse - refusal, promote - promotion Similarly adjectives too can be converted into nouns. agree - agreement, hungry – hunger, young - youth, silent - silence, mysterious – mystery, disastrous - disaster, happy - happiness, applicable - applicability, careless - carelessness Nominalisation using “ing” Forms An especially common case of verbs being used as nouns is the addition of the suffix –’ing’, known in English as a Gerund. The Gerund is identical in form to the Present Participle (ending in -ing) and can behave as a verb within a clause, but the clause as a whole acts as a noun within the larger sentence. Swimming is fun. Breathing helps you to calm down. Smoking is injurious to health.

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