The simple past tense is used for an action that occurred in the past without mentioning its duration or its relation with the present. Simple past is used with the past time references.
I learnt French last year.
Past Continuous Tense
The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment.
Past Perfect Tense
The past perfect tense indicates that an action was completed (finished or "perfected") at some point in the past before something else happened.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
An action continued for some time before another action in the past took place.
Simple Future Tense
The simple future tense indicates an action that occurs in the future, a prediction in the near future, an intention or expectation in the future or imminent or probable facts.
Future Continuous Tense
Future continuous tense is used to denote actions that continue in the future, for arrangements and plans and for actions in progress in future.
Future Perfect Tense
Future perfect tense is used for an action that gets completed by a time in the future, for an action that gets completed by a time in the future or for actions that will be completed by a certain time in future
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
The future perfect continuous tense is used for an action that continues till another action in the future takes place.
Future Time Reference
When we know for sure that future events are under our control, we have the tendency to sound as if we have detailed information about what is going to happen in the future.
For personal schedules and official schedules, the progressive present and (be) going can be used. For official schedules, the simple present and the progressive present are the most commonly used forms.
Example: the meeting starts at 9 a.m. Or
The meeting is going to start at 9 a.m.
If we think we know what will happen at a precise moment in the future, we may use the progressive form of the future tense.
Example: when i reach the school, the teacher will be taking attendance.
Use of ‘Will’ and ‘Shall’
Future time is expressed by verbs in present tense.
We use ‘will’ and ‘shall’ in simple future tense.
With ‘will’ and ‘shall’, we always use the first form of verb.
Example: she will sing a song.
We use future perfect and future continuous if an event is sure to happen in future.
Use of ‘Going To’
‘Going to’ is used to express intention or to refer to a present indication of the future event.
Example: J.K Rowling is going to launch a new fantasy book.
We use the present continuous to talk about future when the decision about future has already been taken.
Example: i am going to pursue my higher studies in Canada.