How do Organisms Reproduce?

Reproduction at its basic level is involved in making copies of the blueprints of our body design. A basic event in the process of reproduction is creation of a DNA copy. Depending upon the body design various organisms use different modes of reproduction Many bacteria and protozoa simply divide into two or more daughter cells by the process of fission. Some organisms like Hydra, regenerate if they are broken into pieces. They reproduce by the process of budding also in which they give out buds which mature into new individuals. Some plants develop into new plants through vegetative propagation of roots, stem and leaves. These types of reproduction are called asexual reproduction where new generations are created from a single individual. In sexual reproduction two individuals are involved for the creation of new individual. DNA copying is the process of creating variation in the organisms. Variations are useful for ensuring the survival of the species. The sexual reproduction in plants involves transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma. This process is referred to as pollination. The process of pollination is followed by fertilisation. In humans, changes in the body such as increase in breast size in girls and facial hair growth in boys are signs of sexual maturation or puberty. In human, the male reproductive system consists of testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis. The sperms are produced in testes. In humans, the female reproductive system consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. The sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm in the vagina of the female. The fusion of egg and sperm or fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube of female reproductive system. There are various contraceptive methods to avoid pregnancy, for e.g., by the use of condoms, oral pills, copper-T and other methods.

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