Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity is the variation of life forms, within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire earth. It is a combination of two words; bio meaning life and diversity meaning variety. It refers to the varieties of plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form. Differences in biodiversity of one place from another are due to the environmental conditions of an area and the range of tolerance of the species.

Biodiversity is a system of constant evolution of any species or of any individual organism. Biodiversity is unevenly distributed on the earth. We can find rich and varied life in the tropics while larger population of few species is in the poles. Biodiversity can be classified in the form of Genetic Ecosystem Species Biodiversity plays a significant role in the climate change mitigation. It is essential to global food security and nutrition. Biodiversity plays three important roles. Ecological role leads to interdependency Economical role of biodiversity provides us with resources, and Scientific role is helpful for research purposes. The reasons for the loss of biodiversity are: Natural calamities Overexploitation of resources Introduction of exotic species Use of pesticides and chemicals Deforestation and poaching The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has classified the threatened species of plants and animals as: Endangered Species Vulnerable Species, and Rare Species

A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a considerable reserve of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction. For the conservation of biodiversity of plants and animals, mega diversity centres are established. It is very important to conserve biodiversity. Various measures for conservation of biodiversity are taken.

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