Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity is the variation of life forms, within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire earth.
It is a combination of two words; bio meaning life and diversity meaning variety. It refers to the varieties of plants, animals and micro-organisms, the genes they contain and the ecosystems they form.
Differences in biodiversity of one place from another are due to the environmental conditions of an area and the range of tolerance of the species.
Biodiversity is a system of constant evolution of any species or of any individual organism.
Biodiversity is unevenly distributed on the earth.
We can find rich and varied life in the tropics while larger population of few species is in the poles.
Biodiversity can be classified in the form of
Biodiversity plays a significant role in the climate change mitigation. It is essential to global food security and nutrition.
Biodiversity plays three important roles.
Ecological role leads to interdependency
Economical role of biodiversity provides us with resources, and
Scientific role is helpful for research purposes.
The reasons for the loss of biodiversity are:
Overexploitation of resources
Introduction of exotic species
Use of pesticides and chemicals
Deforestation and poaching
The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has classified the threatened species of plants and animals as:
Vulnerable Species, and
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a considerable reserve of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
For the conservation of biodiversity of plants and animals, mega diversity centres are established.
It is very important to conserve biodiversity. Various measures for conservation of biodiversity are taken.