Geography as a Discipline

Geography is the description of the earth. The term geography was first coined by Eratosthenes. It is derived from two roots from Greek language: Geo meaning earth and graphos meaning description. Scholars defined Geography as the description of the earth as the abode of human beings.

Geography draws its subject matter from the natural sciences and social sciences. It is a synthesis of both, and acts as an integrating discipline. Many branches of physical geography have interfaces with natural sciences like: Geomorphology interfaces with geology Hydrology interfaces with oceanography Pedology interfaces with soil geography and, Meteorology with climatology Geographers also need to be proficient in mathematics, astronomy and art. Similarly geography also draws from social sciences.

In social sciences, geography draws from the following disciplines: Economics History Sociology Political Science Anthropology The art of map-making makes geography a distinct discipline from the rest.

The important branches of geography are— physical geography, human geography and biogeography. These branches have further sub-branches. Physical geography includes: geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, and soil geography.

Human geography on the other hand includes: social/cultural geography, population and settlement geography, economic geography, historical geography and political geography. Biogeography includes: plant geography, zoo geography, ecology and environmental geography.

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