Landforms and Their Evolution
The geomorphic agents like running water, ground water, wind, glaciers and waves form different landforms on the earth. These geomorphic agents acting over long periods of time produce systematic changes, leading to sequential development of landforms.
The running water in its different stages, forms erosional and depositional landforms like valleys, Potholes, Plunge pools, incised or entrenched meanders, river terraces, alluvial fans, deltas, floodplains, natural levees and point bars, meanders and braided channels.
The process of formation of landforms by the action of groundwater is called Karst topography. The erosional and depositional landforms created by Karst topography are Pools, Sinkholes, Lapies and limestone pavements, caves, stalactites, stalagmites and pillars.
The landforms formed by the erosional and depositional work of glaciers are cirque, horns, serrated ridges, glacial valleys, moraines, eskers, outwash plains and drumlins.
The erosional landforms formed by the coastal processes are cliffs, terraces, caves, stacks. The depositional landforms formed by the waves are beaches, dunes, bars, barriers and spits.
Wind is an important agent for landform formation in deserts. The landforms formed by the action of wind are pediments, pediplains, playas, deflation hollows, caves, mushroom rock, table rock, pedestal rock, sand dunes and barchans.
Thus, these geomorphic agents change the surface of the earth by transforming the landforms.