Life on the Earth

Ecology is the study of the interaction of organisms with their physical environment and with each other. Ecosystem on the other hand is the system consisting of biotic as well as abiotic components. Biotic components include the producers, the consumers and the decomposers, while the abiotic factors include factors like, rainfall, sunlight, temperature, humidity, etc. Ecosystems are of two types: terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic ecosystem.

Terrestrial ecosystem can further be classified into biomes. A biome is a plant and animal community that covers a large geographical area. Biomes are demarcated on the basis of climatic characteristics. There are basically five types of biomes. These are: forest biome, desert biome, grassland biome, aquatic biome and altitudinal biome.

Food chain is an important aspect of the ecosystem. It can be defined as the transfer of energy from one level to another. There are two types of food chains: grazing food chain and detritus food chain.

Another important term related to the ecosystem is the biogeochemical cycles. These are basically the cyclic movements of the chemical elements by the organism and the environment. There are two types of biogeochemical cycles, gaseous and sedimentary cycle. Some important biogeochemical cycles are the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the oxygen cycle, the nitrogen cycle and the other mineral cycles.

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