Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so as to allow its individual species to adjust themselves to climate and soil conditions as fully as possible. India is a land of great variety of natural vegetation.
Forests in India are generally classified on the basis of predominant vegetation type and climatic regions, into five types:
Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen Forests
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical Thorn Forests
Montane Forests and,
Littoral and Swamp Forests
Forest cover in India is 23.28% of the total land area. Forest area and forest cover vary from state to state.
Forest conservation is of vital importance to the survival and prosperity of humankind as forests have an intricate interrelationship with life and environment. They provide numerous advantages to economy and society.
Government of India adopted a forest policy in 1952, which was later modified in 1988. The emphasis was given on sustainable forest management. Its purpose was to conserve and expand forest reserve and also to take care of the needs of the local people.
Wildlife of India is a great natural heritage. 4-5% of all the known plant and animal species are found in India.
Main reason of this diversity is the diversity of ecosystem in India.
Protection of wildlife has a long tradition in India. Comprehensive Wildlife Act was enacted in 1972. It provides main legal framework for the conservation and protection of wildlife in India.
Various National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves are set up by the Government of India to protect larger areas of natural habitat.
Special steps have been initiated by the Government of India, in collaboration with UNESCO’s ‘Man and Biosphere Programme’. Special schemes have been launched to conserve species and their habitat in a sustainable manner, like Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Project Hangul, etc.
Every individual should understand and contribute his bit for wildlife conservation.