Structure and Physiography

The earth and its landforms that we see today have evolved over a very long time. Various shapes found on the surface of the earth are a result of the endogenic and exogenic forces that have acted upon it for a long time.

The present geological structures and geomorphologic processes in the Indian Subcontinent are also the result of these forces. India can be divided into three geological divisions; The Peninsular Block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains and, Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain Physiography of an area is the outcome of structure, process and the stage of development. India can be divided into the following physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-Eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Indian Peninsular Block is rigid and stable and consists of rising hills and wide valleys made of granites and gneisses. The Himalayas along with other peninsular mountains are young, weak and flexible in their geological structure. The Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain is formed by the depositional action of three main rivers, which are— the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.

The Great Indian Desert covers most of the Rajasthan extending to some parts of Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat. On the basis of the location and active geomorphological processes, Indian Coastal plains are divided into the western coastal plains and eastern coastal plains.

There are two major island groups in India— 1. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, and 2. The Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea.

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