World Climate and Climate Change

The most widely used classification of climate is the empirical climate classification scheme developed by V. Koeppen in 1918, and modified over a period of time. The scheme was based on the mean annual and mean monthly temperature and precipitation data. Koeppen classified the climate into six major climatic groups; five of them are based on temperature and one on precipitation. These are: A-Tropical B-Dry Climates C-Warm Temperate D-Cold Snow Forest Climates E-Cold Climates H-High Land The climatic groups are subdivided into types, designated by small letters, based on seasonality of precipitation and temperature characteristics. Seasons of dryness are indicated by the small letters: f - corresponds to no dry season m - monsoon climate w- winter dry season, and s - summer dry season Small letters a, b, c and d refer to the degree of severity of temperature. The B- Dry Climates are subdivided using the capital letters S for steppe or semi-arid, and W for deserts. Group Type Code A-Tropical Humid Climate Tropical Wet Af Tropical Monsoon Am Tropical wet and dry Aw B- Dry Climate Subtropical steppe BSh Subtropical desert BWh Mid-latitude steppe BSk Mid-latitude desert BWk C-warm temperate (Mid-latitude) Climates Humid subtropical Cfa Mediterranean Cs Marine west coast Cfb D- Cold Snow-forest climates Humid continental Df Subarctic Dw E- Cold climates Tundra ET Polar ice cap EF H-Highland Highland H The planet earth has witnessed many variations in climate since the beginning. There are many evidences that explain climate change. The causes for climate change can be grouped into astronomical and terrestrial causes. Increase in the Earth’s temperature due to rise in carbon dioxide levels and greenhouse effect is called global warming The gases that absorb long wave radiation are called greenhouse gases. The processes that warm the atmosphere are often collectively referred to as the greenhouse effect.

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