Displacing Indigenous Peoples
From the 18th century, European immigrants settled in the regions of South America, Central America, North America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand and by created ‘colonies’. African natives were captured and exported as slaves. The term ‘the noble savage’ was used the natives. European Imperialism began with Spain and Portugal in America, Africa and Asia; England had biggest colonies in South Asia. Amerigo Vespucci coined the name ‘America’. The name ‘Canada’ comes from the term ‘kanata’ meaning ‘village’, and the name ‘NEW ZEALAND’ comes from a Dutch word ‘zee’ for ‘sea’. Europeans tagged the natives as ‘uncivilised’.
European settlements emerged as nations with separate identity, for example the USA. South America was colonised prior to North America where the Spaniards had enslaved natives. The northern states were against slavery. In 1861-65, there was a Civil War between the Northern and Southern states. Only in the twentieth century, the African-Americans won civil liberties. Not till the 1920s, the conditions of the Red Indians in the USA and Canada did not improve. The Indian Reorganisation Act was passed in 1934. In 1954, in the ‘Declaration of Indian Rights’ prepared by the natives, they accepted citizenship of the USA. Canada passed a ‘Constitution Act’ in 1982 to recognise the rights of the natives.
The Aborigines in Australia arrived on the continent 40,000 years ago. In 1770, Captain Cook, a British explorer was first to reach Australia from Europe. W.E.H. Stanner, an anthropologist brought Australian the aborigines into light, in 1968, in his lecture ‘The Great Australian Silence’. Henry Reynolds questioned the colonial interpretation the history of Australia in his Why Weren’t We Told?