Reproductive Health

Population can be defined as “number of organisms of same species occupying particular space and geographical area at a given time and are capable of mutual interbreeding”. The population of India has been steadily increasing for the last 100 years. Reproductive health refers to well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social. The aim of reproductive health is to create awareness among people about reproductive organs, adolescence and associated changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS, etc. Another important aspect of the Reproductive and Child Health Care programmes is to provide medical facilities and care to the problems like menstrual irregularities, pregnancy related aspects, STDs, birth control, infertility etc. Birth control or contraception is a method to prevent pregnancy. There are various methods of birth control such as: Natural/Traditional methods, Barrier methods, Intra uterine devices (IUDs), Oral contraceptives (OCs), Injectables and implants, surgical methods. Medical termination is generally performed to get rid of unwanted pregnancy due to rapes, casual relationship, etc. It is also performed in cases when the continuation of pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal to either the mother, or the foetus or both. Sexually transmitted diseases are diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse. STDs may be caused by bacteria, protozoa, virus, and Chlamydia etc. Sexually transmitted diseases have many effects such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), stillbirths, infertility, cancer of the reproductive tract, etc. Infertility is the inability to conceive or produce a child even after one or more years of unprotected sexual cohabitation. Assisted Reproductive Technologies or ARTs include special reproductive methods to solve the problems of infertility. The various ARTs methods are: In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF), Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT), Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT), Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), and Artificial Insemination (AI).

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