Leadership is the process of influencing behaviour of people by making them struggle voluntarily towards achievement of organisational objectives. Leadership styles refers to the behavioural pattern which leaders reflect in their roles while influencing their followers. Leadership style can be authoritative, democratic or laissez faire. Authoritative leadership refers to a ‘boss centered’ leadership style, characterised by maximum possible centralisation of authority. Democratic style refers to a ‘group centered’ leadership style, having delegation of authority, participative decision making and two way communication. Laissez faire refers to ‘subordinate centered’ leadership style having complete delegation of authority and free flow of communication.
Communication refers to a process of exchange of ideas, facts, views, feelings, etc., either in verbal, written or gestural form, between or among people to create a common understanding. Formal communication flows through the official channels designed in the organisation chart. Formal communication can be vertical or horizontal. Types of network of formal communication are single chain, wheel, circular, free flow and inverted V. Informal communication takes place without following the formal lines of communication. Types of informal communication are single strand, gossip, cluster and probability. Communication barriers prevent a communication, or filter a part of it, or carry incorrect meaning, due to which misunderstandings may be created between the manager and the employees. Types of communication barriers are semantic, personal, psychological and organisational. Semantic barriers relates to the branch of linguistics dealing in meaning of words & sentences. Psychological barriers are barriers related to emotional or psychological factors of both sender and receiver. Organisational barrier relate to organisation structure, authority relationships, rules and regulations etc. and Personal barrier relate to personal factors of both the sender and receiver. For improving communication effectiveness following points should be kept in mind: clarify the ideas, consult others before communicating, use of proper language, tone and contents, conveying things of help and value, ensure proper feedback, etc