The managerial function of staffing involves the filling and keeping filled, positions in the organisational structure. It is required because of growing size of organisation, rapid advancement of technology and complicated behaviour of human beings. Staffing helps in obtaining competent personnel, ensuring high performance, assuring optimum utilisation of human resources, etc. Human resource management refers to the set of functions performed for acquiring, training, maintaining and motivating human resources for achieving personal, business and social objectives of an enterprise. With growth, the size and number of employees increases, necessitating the formation of a separate department known as ‘Human Resource Department’. Duties of HRD are maintaining labour relations and union management relations, handling grievances and complaint, providing for social security and welfare of employees, defending the company in law suits and avoiding legal complications, etc. Steps in the process of staffing are estimating manpower requirements, recruitment, selection, placement and orientation, training and development, compensation, performance appraisal, promotion and career planning.
Sources of recruitment can be internal or external. Internal sources include transfer and promotion means shifting an employee to a higher position, carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. External sources are direct recruitment, advertisement, employment exchange, campus recruitment, web publishing, etc. Selection refers to the process of choosing the best candidate from among the prospective job candidates identified at the stage of recruitment. Process of selection includes preliminary screening, selection tests, employment interview, reference & background checks, selection decision, medical examination, job offer and contract of employment. Training and development is an attempt to improve the current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Methods of training are on the job training, off the job training, apprenticeship training, internship training, vestibule training and induction training.