Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

The environmental problems in India are growing rapidly. Over exploitation of the resources of the country has resulted in the environmental degradation of resources. Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems faced by the humanity and other life forms.

Environmental pollution is caused as a result of the release of substances and energy from the waste products of human activities. Pollution can be classified into: Air pollution Water pollution Land pollution and Noise pollution Urban waste disposal is a serious problem in India. In the metropolitan cities, almost 90 % of the solid waste is disposed off. In small towns and cities where the untreated waste is left open, the waste ferments and releases toxic bio gas, adding methane to the atmosphere. Migration of people from the rural areas to urban areas is a major problem. A major problem caused due to the increased rural to urban migration is the growth of slums in the urban areas. Slums are residential areas characterized by the lack of basic amenities, like drinking water, electricity and toilet facilities. Asia's largest slum, Dharavi, is spread over an area of 1.75 kms. It is located between two main suburban railway lines of Mumbai — the Western and the Central Railways. To its west lie Mahim, and Bandra and the Mithi River lies to its north lies. The population in the slums is vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism and social exclusion. Land degradation can be defined as temporary or a permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land. Jhabua district is located in the westernmost agro-climatic zone in Madhya Pradesh. The area has high rate of resource degradation, both forest and land have led to poverty. Watershed Management Programmes acknowledge the linkage between land, water and vegetation. It is an attempt to improve the livelihood of people through natural resource management and community participation.

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