Human Development (Part-A)
Growth and development refers to change over time. Growth is quantitative and can be positive, as well as negative; development on the other hand is only a qualitative change. Development is proportional to positive growth.
Development has been defined by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq, as the development that enlarges the choices of the people and improves their lives.
There are basically four pillars of human development. These pillars aim at providing:
Equity: It refers to making equal access to the opportunities available to everybody.
Sustainability: Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities.
Productivity: Productivity refers to human labour productivity or, productivity in terms of human work.
Empowerment: It is the fourth pillar which means having the power to be able to make choices. The power comes from increasing the freedom and capability.
There are basically four approaches to human development.
The first approach is the income approach: This approach links human development to income.
Welfare approach: It is the second approach, which looks at human beings as beneficiaries of all the development activities.
Basic needs approach: This approach identifies six basic needs, i.e., health, education, food, water supply, sanitation and housing.
The fourth approach is the capability approach, which is associated with Professor Amartya Sen. According to this approach, building capabilities in the areas of health, education and access to resources is important for human development.
Human development is measured in terms of human development index. HDI ranks the countries on the basis of their performance in the important sectors like, health, education and access to resources.
On the basis of the HDI indices, the countries are classified into countries with high index value, countries with medium index value, and countries with low index value.
There are several issues related to human development, which need to be addressed. Social progress is an important aspect related to human development. Social progress means greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services. After social progress comes economic development. Economic growth is a means for reducing inequality and improving the levels of human development. Equal participation and freedom is also very essential. It will lead to empowerment, democratic governance, gender equality, civil and political rights and cultural liberty.