Human Development (Part-B)

The concept of Human Development embraces every development issue. It includes economic growth, social investment and empowerment of the people. It includes the provision of basic needs, social safety nets, and political and cultural freedom for all people. It emphasises that development must put people at the centre of its concerns.

Some of the symbols of development which represent the development aspect of any community are: Freedom Modernisation Computerisation Industrialisation Improved education system Safety and security, and Leisure.

Along with the conventional indicators of measuring Human Development like, the performance of a country in sectors like— health, education and access to resources, many other factors are also taken into consideration. These other factors are— economic attainment, social empowerment, social distributive justice, accessibility, hygiene and the various welfare measures that are undertaken. The main indicator of the economic attainment is the Gross National Product (GNP) and its per capita availability. The indicators of a healthy life are infant mortality rate. Also a life free from illness and ailment and living a reasonably long life indicate a healthy life. Social empowerment on the other hand is represented by knowledge, which in turn is represented by the literacy rate.

India has been placed among the countries showing medium human development. India is ranked at 136 among the 187 countries of the world in terms of the Human Development Index or HDI. It represents medium category of Human Development index with a composite HDI of 0.554. Kerala with the composite index value of 0.638 is placed at the top rank followed by Punjab (0.537), Tamil Nadu (0.531) Maharashtra (0.523) and Haryana (0.509). As expected, states like Bihar (0.367), Assam (0.386), Uttar Pradesh (0.388), Madhya Pradesh (0.394) and Odisha (0.404) are at the bottom among the 15 major states in India.

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