Land Resources and Agriculture
Human beings use land as a resource for production, as well as residence and recreation. Land-use records are maintained by the revenue department.
The land-use categories as maintained in the Land Revenue Records are as follows:
Land put to Non-agricultural Uses
Barren and Wastelands
Area under Permanent Pastures and Grazing Lands
Area under Miscellaneous Tree Crops and Groves
Fallow other than Current Fallow
Net Area Sown
An economy undergoes three types of changes which affect the land-use. These are:
Size of the economy
Composition of the economy
Continued pressure on the agricultural land
Land is an important resource for the people depending on agriculture. Farming in India can be classified on the basis of main source of moisture available for crops.
Rainfed farming is classified on the basis of adequacy of soil moisture into dryland farming and wetland farming.
Dryland farming is largely confined to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. Crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar are grown.
In wetland farming, the rainfall exceeds soil moisture requirement of plants during the rainy season. Thus, water intensive crops like rice, jute and sugarcane are grown.
The cropping pattern of India includes different types of crops like foodgrains, oilseeds, fibre crops and other crops that include beverage crops, sugarcane, etc.
Indian agriculture has developed due to the implementation of various policies. Green revolution has not only increased the food production, but also strengthened the Indian economy.
Despite of the development, Indian agriculture is plagued by several problems; such as flood, drought, lack of land reforms, small land holdings, lack of commercialisation, land degradations, inadequate storage facilities, etc.
Strenuous efforts are being made to encourage the farmers to adopt scientific agriculture and harnessing of resources for the development of dairy farming, poultry, horticulture, aquaculture, etc.