Manufacturing is a process, which involves transforming the raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in the local or distant markets.
Manufacturing industries can be classified on the basis of:
Nature of manufactured goods
The location of industries is influenced by several factors like access to raw materials, power, market, transport, labour and historical factors.
The major industries in our country are of Iron and steel, cotton textile, sugar, petrochemicals and the knowledge based industry.
These industries are unevenly distributed in the country. They are concentrated in certain locations, known as the industrial regions in India. These manufacturing industries are important, as they contribute significantly to the country’s economy.
The Government aims at balanced regional development. For this, Industrial policy was announced in 1991. The major objectives of this policy were to attain international competitiveness, growth in gainful employment, maintain a sustained growth in productivity, corrections of distortions or weaknesses that have crept in and to build on the gains already made.
The steps which were taken to implement this policy are:
Foreign investment policy
Access to the capital market
Free entry to foreign technology
Abolition of industrial licensing
Abolition of phased manufacturing programme, and
Liberalised industrial location programme
Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalization are three main dimensions of the policy.
Major industrial regions of the country are:
Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region
Hugli Industrial Region
Bangalore-Chennai Industrial Region
Gujarat Industrial Region
Chota Nagpur Region
Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region, and