Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences
The people who migrate are called migrants. Depending on the nature of migration, historical setting, circumstances and perspective people are known as emigrants, immigrants or settlers. A migrant person is one who, at a given census, was enumerated at a place other than his /her place of birth for a long duration.
When people leave a place and migrate to some other place, it is called ‘out-migration. When people come from other places and settle down at a particular place, it is called ‘in-migration
According to the 2011 census, the total migrant population in India is 314,541,350. Out of which 309,594,490 migrated from one part of the country to another and 4,946,860 migrated from outside the country.
Various types of migration are as follows:
Voluntary and Forced Migration.
There are two streams of migration- internal and international.
Internal migration includes:
Rural to Rural
Rural to Urban
Urban to Urban, and
Urban to Rural
Immigration is people coming from neighbouring countries. Emigration is people moving to other countries.
People migrate from one place to another due to variety of reasons. The push factors like lack of jobs, lack of facilities, poor environment, pollution, lack of infrastructure, racial tension, flood, cyclone, earthquake, etc., cause people to leave their place of residence or origin and the pull factors like housing, health care facilities, peace and greenery, education facilities, recreation, high wages and better infrastructure, etc., attract the people from different places.